Guide to Buying Diamonds: What Should be Checked?

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What is important to know when buying diamonds or diamond jewelry

Just before you  buy an engagement ring  for your chosen one, you should stop for a few moments and understand what makes the diamonds in the ring so unique. There are 4 parameters that must be checked when buying a diamond, and they are called The 4 C's for short:  - Clarity

- Color  - Color

- Cutting  - Cut

 Weight  – Carat

Diamond cleanliness

The diamond is a stone that is formed in nature and therefore carries many inclusions within it. The cleaner and free of inclusions the diamond is, the rarer it is, and of course the more expensive it is. The clarity of the diamond is determined on an accepted and international scale. The defects are determined by  a gemmologist , when the power of the accepted binoculars is 10 times. It is usually customary that a defect that does not appear at this magnification is not considered a defect.
The defects in a diamond are divided into two: external defects that appear outside the stone, and in most cases they can be removed by brushing, and internal defects that are inside the stone or penetrate from the outside to the

 Types of external defects

Knife  - unpolished remains of the outer shell of the raw stone. Found mainly in
Inclination  - polishing surfaces that are not symmetrical to the stone


A rough rondist  - a rondist that is not smooth.

Heat marks  - when the diamond is polished from the heat, the heat creates light marks on the shell.

Scratch  - on the surface.

-Types of internal defects

Pika  - a point inside the body of the diamond. 

Nat  - another crystal that grew inside the diamond.

 Inner crystal - various minerals that are inside the diamond.

Glatz  - a crack in a diamond along the fissure lines.

Fracture  - a crack in a diamond that is not on the cleavage lines.

A cloud  - a group of tiny dots.

Drilling  - a hole from the diamond shell to its center that was drilled with the help of a laser beam, in order to clean a black spot.

To determine the degree of cleanliness of the diamond, several parameters are weighed together

1. The number of defects 2. The size of the defects3. The location of the defect (the more central it is, the lower the rating will be)

4. The brightness of the defect (the more prominent it is, the lower the rating will be)

5. The color of the defect (the darker it is, the lower the rating)

It should be noted that even if the store assured that the diamonds are clean, it is important to know the exact degree of cleanliness.

-Diamond clarity grading groups

Diamonds rated FL (without external or internal defects - Flawless) and rated IF (without internal defects - Internally Flawless)  - these are the rarest and most beautiful diamonds. Flaws cannot be discerned even at a 40x magnification, which contributes to prices on the order of tens and hundreds of thousands of dollars. 

Diamonds graded VVS1 (Very Very Slight Inclusions) and graded VVS2 (Very Slight Inclusions)  - excellent quality diamonds, with tiny flaws that are barely visible even under 10x magnification.

Diamonds rated VS2 - VS1 (Very Slight Inclusions)  - diamonds with defects that are not visible without magnification, especially for those who do not have a professional eye in the field. Less expensive compared to VVS1 or VVS2 diamonds by dozens of percent.

Diamonds rated SI2 - SI1 (internal inclusion visible at 10x magnification and sometimes even without magnification - Slight Inclusions)  - diamonds of good value.

Diamonds graded I1=P1, I2=P2, I3=P3  - diamonds with a flaw that can be seen with the naked eye or with magnification. are more common because they carry internal defects.

-The colors of the diamond

A clean and perfect diamond is colorless, and the more colorless the stone, the better quality it is; But many diamonds appear in nature in different and diverse colors, starting with brown, black, red, pink, and ending with yellow and blue. "Normal" colors appear in diamonds ranging from white to yellow or brown. Diamonds in special colors - such as red, pink or blue - are also called  COLOR FANCY . Diamonds in blue, red and green colors are rare, and their price is usually higher than normal colors. Even these colored diamonds have a rating, starting with "colorless".

The pricing of colored diamonds consists of two main elements:

1. Type of color (pink, yellow, blue and more)

2. The intensity of the color (how dominant is the color and how it is distributed in the space of the diamond)

The price of a diamond gifted with a combination of intense color with a rare color type is sky high 

Colored diamonds that we find in stores are not natural, and their color is the product of artificial coloring using omega rays. Additional coloring is carried out using  the HTHP method  (ie High Temperature, High Pressure). This change is more expensive and obtainable by special order  in stores and chains that specialize in diamonds


-Diamond color grading

D  – white without any hint of shade. extremely rare. 

E  – white without a hint of shade. rare.

F  – white with the lightest shade of shade. Only an experienced gemologist will notice the shade. rare.

HG  – white with a slight hint of shade.

JI  – white with a slight hint of color.

K  – very light color.

L  – medium light color.

M  – light color.

N  – moderate color.

>>>>Choose your diamond 

-Diamond cutting and polishing

Cutting is the operation that rounds the rough diamond, and it is carried out using another diamond of a similar size. The cutting process is extremely sensitive, because it determines the position of the surface of the stone slab in a final way, as well as the diameter of the diamond.

Polishing the stone is the last operation and its role is to extract maximum shine and beauty from the stone. The more professional the polishing, the more "life" the stone will have and it will produce sparks and throw light upwards and less to the sides.

When it comes to diamond polishing, correct proportions are important. It is important to know that a flat stone is of lower quality than a tall stone. As mentioned, the polish with the best proportions is the brilliant polish, which creates a round diamond with 57 facets, but sometimes you can also find polishes in different shapes (fantasy polish).

 These polishings result from the desire to utilize the raw material to the fullest, in case the defects cannot be removed by polishing, or if there is a requirement for special polishing.

-The weight of the diamond

What is a carat? 

A phrase used to express the weight of a diamond. One carat indicates 200 milligrams of the actual weight, which is 0.2 grams. The weight of smaller diamonds is called "points", when they will weigh less than 1 carat, i.e. in decimal format (for example: a 0.3 carat diamond will read 30 points). The bigger the diamonds, the more expensive they are. That is, a carat diamond is much more expensive than a half-carat diamond. In addition, one carat diamond is much more expensive than a hundred 0.01 carat diamonds.

Some sizes come in pairs (half carat, carat...) and finding a completely identical pair is significant and increases the price of diamonds. Besides being an expression that signifies the weight of diamonds, carat is also an expression for the purity of the gold metal, and it basically refers to the value of the gold out of the total metal material, with the maximum being 24 carats. 24 karat denotes a metal containing 99.9% gold, 18 karat denotes a metal containing 75% gold and 14 karat denotes a metal containing 58.5% gold.

When buying a gold piece of jewelry such as  an engagement ring  or another type, you should pay attention to the gold karat which symbolizes the quality of the metal and the percentage of gold in it. The higher the carat, the purer the metal and therefore more expensive.

It is important! It is advisable to purchase diamonds in chains and professional stores that specialize and ensure reliable and accurate reporting of cleanliness, weight and color of the stone.


-Diamond setting

Another important thing to pay attention to is the quality of the jewelry's inlay. A high-quality setting ensures that the diamond will sparkle and throw more light from the jewelry, and no less important: a high-quality setting is also critical to ensure that the diamond does not fall out of the  jewelry. The setting of the diamonds is very important and determines the final appearance of the jewelry. There are several types of diamond inlays:

Solitaire setting  - for a single or central stone.

Solitaire teeth placement  - teeth that hold the stone. Usually it is 4 or 6 teeth and it can be even less if there is a supporting cup or more. In large stones it is usually 6 teeth.

Goblet setting  - a gold frame with the diamond embedded in it, similar to the goblet into which the stone is placed. The beauty of the glass that is built like a cone, similar to the tapering stone. Usually, this type of inlay is not suitable for large stones because you cannot see all the parts of the stone and the glass seals it from the light.

Setting in channels  - a channel is engraved and the diamonds are set in it. The width of each slot is according to the size of the diamonds. Can be inserted in spaces or adjacent; The advantage is that the diamonds are close together and there is no space between them. In this setting, the diamond is as high as gold and even lower than that.

Invisible inlay  - a type of trench inlay with a different inlay technique. A hidden and unique inlay in the appearance of one large stone, usually made with square stones. In the stone itself a groove is made under the rundis and the stone above the gold that catches it on the sides. This is how a smooth diamond surface is created and revealed.

Inlay in the flesh  - that is, in the gold itself. A plate of gold in which holes are made and then the inlay is created from the material. Can be a single line or pave inlay (surface full of diamonds).

Smearing inlay  - with the help of a steel rod they rotate around the stone, and he spreads a drop of gold on the sides of the stone and holds it.


Diamond price list - how is the price of a diamond determined

The price of diamonds is determined for each product, depending on supply and demand. The high price of diamonds is determined by their beauty, durability and rarity. The accepted price list in the world of diamonds  is called the rapaport price list. This price list determines the price of the diamond considering the four C's. Important! It is better to buy diamonds in large chains that purchase the diamonds directly from the stock exchange without intermediary gaps, and this in order to get the best value for your money.

One of the ways to determine the value of a diamond is determined by the polishing parameter, and it refers to the way in which the stone is polished in order to reveal its many facets. The intensity of the shine and the beauty inherent in the stone are revealed thanks to the expertise of the craftsman, who polishes wig after wig, aiming to reach ideal and symmetrical proportions.

Diamond polishing itself is divided into several types:

Brilliant polishing  - creates a round diamond with 57 facets, and this is also the diamond you usually find in stores. In 1919, a mathematician wrote a formula that allows for angles and proportions that enhance the beauty of the brilliant diamond. Since then, 57 wigs for the brilliant cut are considered the best proportions for a round diamond. Brilliant polish is also the most expensive.

Radiant polishing (Radiant)  - diamonds polished in the shape of an octagon, i.e. eight sides. This polishing allows for a rare shine that used to be the exclusive property of round diamonds.

Princess polishing (Princess)  - four-sided polishing. The challenge of creating diamonds with the same intensity of brilliance as the brilliant-cut diamonds, led experts to develop square-cut, multi-faceted diamonds. And then the royal virtues of the diamonds were revealed in the presentation of amazing results. Improper polishing of a diamond may give it a pale, dull and artificial appearance.

Fantasy polishing  - polishing that combines different shapes. Among the fancy polishes you can find diamonds in the following shapes: oval, drop, marquise, emerald, princess, heart, baguette and triangle.

As mentioned earlier, the price of polished diamonds is determined according to the "Rappaport price list". The price list was devised by a Jewish diamond expert from New York, who decided to issue a price list classifying the price of the diamond according to four categories: color, clarity, weight and cut.

Naturally, demand creates need, and supply provides the solution to demand. These two are intertwined and move the world. For example, when the demand for pearls increased, captive oyster farms began to spring up and soon an industry of cultured pearls developed.

The way the pearl is produced is by artificial stimulation in a controlled process of opening the shell of the oyster and planting a tiny piece from the shell of another oyster. After that, the oyster remains in a special net device below sea level for at least two to three years. This way pearls are obtained that are rounder than the natural pearls and their value is lower.

And when the demand for diamonds increases? The last decade has seen a sharp and constant increase of tens of percent in diamond prices, with the main reason for this being the increase in demand in the markets in the East (mainly China and India) as well as in Eastern Europe. In addition, the watch industry began to set diamonds on the bezel, strap and bezel, which increased the demand for small diamonds.

Already from the 1950s, efforts began to be invested in the development of technology that allows the creation of man-made diamonds. The development is done in growth cells subject to high pressure and temperature, in which there is a small fraction of real diamonds. In the process, huge crystals are formed, with the average size of each cell being the size of a refrigerator.

Diamond growth lasts four days, during which the color of the crystals can also be controlled. The diamonds produced in the laboratory are almost identical to real diamonds, to the point that they cannot be distinguished except with the help of infrared light rays and X-rays.

This progress in the development of ornamental diamonds that are very similar to the original (and, like the cultured pearl, are also significantly cheaper than them) deepened the discussion about their status in the industry, and increased the fear of fraudsters and fraudsters, who present and sell synthetic diamonds as natural.

When it comes to diamonds - size matters

When it comes to various aspects of our day-to-day life it is common to declare that "size does not matter", but when it comes to diamonds it is a completely different story. Not only does the size matter, it is also widely published according to a hierarchy of precise and pre-determined measures.

The largest diamond in the world  is called the Golden Jubilee, its weight is 547.67 carats and its color is brown-gold. It is also unusual because of its rare color band. This diamond was discovered in 1985 and is currently set in the crown of the King of Thailand.

After him in the size category is Gaon "The Cullinan", which is the largest rough diamond discovered in 1905 in a mine in South Africa. At the time of its mining, its weight was 3,106.75 carats. After its cleavage, it is polished into 11 separate diamonds, among them the pear-shaped "Great Star of Africa", which is actually also the largest polished diamond in the world. It is fixed on the British royal scepter as one of the "Crown Jewels".

And in the third and honorable place is the Incomparable, boasting a brown-yellow shade. It was found in the early eighties and underwent a four-year polishing in Antwerp. It is even considered the largest natural colored diamond in the world.

In the color category, the most famous diamond was named "Hope". It was found in India in 1640, its weight was 132 carats, its color was blue and it charmed everyone who looked at it, mainly because at that time diamonds like it had not yet been seen. Some believe that the "hop" is cursed, and anyone who holds it is doomed to bad luck. 

Among its many incarnations, the "Hope" joined the crown diamonds of King Louis XIV and was stolen during the French Revolution. Today the diamond is displayed in the Smithsonian Museum in Washington.

The most famous diamond in the ancient world diamonds is KOH I NOOR. It is estimated that it was discovered in India 5,000 years ago and weighed 1,000 carats. Over the years it has undergone several polishings, its current weight is 108.93 carats and it is embedded in the crown of the Queen of England.


Before purchasing a diamond, you must follow its documentation process, which proves that it has undergone an unbiased professional inspection 

, and be equipped with a "diamond certificate" (also known as a "gemological certificate"). The diamond certificate is issued by a team of gemologists after a professional examination to determine the value of the diamond, measuring its dimensions and checking Its features under the microscope and other professional tools.

The full report includes an analysis of the diamond's dimensions, clarity, color, finish, symmetry, and other characteristics. Many of the round diamond reports also include the polish rating

>>>>Choose your diamond 

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